TOSS-UP #1  Multiple Choice - Physical

What period of the tidal cycle has the least amount of movement within the body of water?
      W. Neap Tide
      X. Spring Tide
      Y. Slack Tide
      Z. Ebb Tide

BONUS #1  Short Answer - Physical

What is the name for a zone in the ocean where salinity of the water rapidly changes with depth?


TOSS-UP #2  Multiple Choice - Geology
Off the northern coast of New Zealand, what trench contains the 35,700 feet Horizon Deep, second only to Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench?
      W. Tonga Trench
      X. Java Trench
      Y. Puerto Rico Trench
      Z. Ryukyu Trench

BONUS #2  Short Answer - Geology

To the nearest thousand miles, about how long is the Tonga Trench?


TOSS-UP #3  Multiple Choice - Geology

The Peru-Chili Trench is the longest trench in the world, reaching what estimated length?
      W. 1,200 miles
      X. 2,500 miles
      Y. 3,200 miles
      Z. 3,700 miles

BONUS #3  Short Answer - Geology

The first ever successful descent to the bottom of Challenger Deep was aboard the manned submarine named what?


TOSS-UP #4  Multiple Choice - Technology

When was the first documented use of a underwater submersible in battle?
      W. 1681
      X. 1775
      Y. 1817
      Z. 1856

BONUS #4  Short Answer - Technology

What was the name of this submersible?


TOSS-UP #5  Multiple Choice - Geology

What is nearest to the elevation of Mauna Loa, Hawaii?
      W. 2,500 feet
      X. 5,200 feet
      Y. 10,700 feet
      Z. 13,700 feet

BONUS #5  Short Answer - Geology

What type of volcano is Mauna Loa?


TOSS-UP #6  Multiple Choice - Geology

What small tectonic plate is located just off the West coast of Canada?
      W. Cocos Plate
      X. Nazca Plate
      Y. Juan de Fuca Plate
      Z. Scotia Plate

BONUS #6  Short Answer - Geology

To the nearest hundred-thousand square miles, approximately how big is the Juan de Fuca plate?

ANSWER: 100,000 square miles (actual 97,000 sq mi or 250,000 sq km)

TOSS-UP #7  Multiple Choice - Chemistry

Which of the following ions is the most concentrated in the ocean at 0.0528 moles per kilogram?
      W. MG2+
      X. Ca2+
      Y. K+
      Z. F-

BONUS #7  Short Answer - Chemistry

What kind of water has a higher filtration rate?


TOSS-UP #8  Multiple Choice - Biology

What shark species has been recorded as the fastest known in the world?
      W. Tiger
      X. Bull
      Y. Blue
      Z. Mako

BONUS #8  Short Answer - Biology

How fast have these sharks been recorded?

ANSWER: accept any answer between 42-46 miles per hour

TOSS-UP #9  Multiple Choice - Biology

What species of shark is third largest, only being beat by the Basking Shark and the Whale Shark?
      W. Great White Shark
      X. Tiger Shark
      Y. Blue Shark
      Z. Gulper Shark

BONUS #9  Short Answer - Biology

To what length have whale sharks been known to grow? Round to the nearest ten feet.

ANSWER: accept any answer between or including 40 and 70 feet

TOSS-UP #10  Multiple Choice - Geography

What was the name of the sea between the two major continents during much of the Mesozoic era?
      W. Thetys Sea
      X. Panthalassic Sea
      Y. Rheic Sea
      Z. Blue Sea

BONUS #10  Short Answer - Geography

What were the names of these two continents?

ANSWER: Gondwana and Laurasia

TOSS-UP #11  Multiple Choice - Geography

How long is the longest barrier island along the coast of the contiguous United States?
      W. 57 miles
      X. 81 miles
      Y. 113 miles
      Z. 273 miles

BONUS #11  Short Answer - Geography

What is the name of this barrier island?

ANSWER: Padre Island

TOSS-UP #12  Multiple Choice - Physical Oceanography

What is the name of the main eastern boundary current in the North Atlantic Ocean?
      W. Gulf Stream
      X. Cannary Current
      Y. Benguela Current
      Z. Kuroshio Current

BONUS #12  Short Answer - Physical Oceanography

In what direction does the North Atlantic Gyre rotate?

ANSWER: Clockwise

TOSS-UP #13  Multiple Choice - Geography

Besides the North American and Australian plates, what plate borders the Pacific plate to the west?
      W. Eurasian Plate
      X. Indonesian Plate
      Y. Southeast Asian Plate
      Z. Filipino Plate

BONUS #13  Short Answer - Geography

What tectonic plate is second largest only to the Pacific Plate?

ANSWER: North American Plate

TOSS-UP #14  Multiple Choice - Geography

What type of energy transfer is used to transfer heat from the core of the earth to the surface?
      W. Conduction
      X. Metallic
      Y. Radiation
      Z. Convection

BONUS #14  Short Answer - Geography

In what layer of the mantle does convection occur?

ANSWER: Asthenosphere

TOSS-UP #15  Multiple Choice - Biology

If a large whale was found dead beached on a shore only a few hours after being seen alive on that same shore, what was the probable cause of death?
      W. Suffocation
      X. Dehydration
      Y. Organ Collapse
      Z. Starvation

BONUS #15  Short Answer - Geography

Made of the same material as fingernails, baleen is found attached to which jaw of large whales?

ANSWER: Upper Jaw

TOSS-UP #16  Multiple Choice - Biology

What is the scientific family for porpoises?
      W. Delphinidae
      X. Phocoenidae
      Y. Cetacea
      Z. Odontoceti

BONUS #16  Short Answer - Biology

What porpoise-like mammal inhabits the Arctic Ocean and boasts one of the longest teeth in the animal kingdom?

ANSWER: Narwhal

TOSS-UP #17  Multiple Choice - Biology

The action of breaking the surface of water and falling back down, creating a tsunami like splash, by whales is known as what?
      W. Tail Slap
      X. Head Rise or Spy Hop
      Y. Head Lunge
      Z. Breaching

BONUS #17  Short Answer - Biology

What other animal related to sharks breaches up to six feet high in groups called shoals?

ANSWER: accept any type of ray

TOSS-UP #18  Multiple Choice - Geology

What era of geological time was the Earth comprised of two main continents, the Paleo-Tethys Sea and the Panthalassic Ocean?
      W. Cenozoic
      X. Paleozoic
      Y. Mesozoic
      Z. Cambrian

BONUS #18  Short Answer - Geology

What type of animal ruled the ocean during much of the Mesozoic era?

ANSWER: Ichthyosaurs

TOSS-UP #19  Multiple Choice - Geology

What plate is directly west of modern-day Mexico?
      W. Pacific Plate
      X. Nazca Plate
      Y. Cocos Plate
      Z. Carribean Plate

BONUS #19  Short Answer - Geology

What plate makes up most of the southern border of the South American Plate?

ANSWER: Scotia Plate

TOSS-UP #20  Multiple Choice - Physical Oceanography

What current is the eastern boundary current for the South Pacific?
      W. Canary Current
      X. Brazil Current
      Y. South African Current
      Z. Benguela Current

BONUS #20  Short Answer - Physical Oceanography

Is the Benguela Current a warm or cold water current?

ANSWER: Cold water

TOSS-UP #21  Multiple Choice - Physical Oceanography

The highest tides in the world are located in the Bay of Fundy. About how high are they?
      W. 12 feet
      X. 35 feet
      Y. 50 feet
      Z. 65 feet

BONUS #21  Short Answer - Physical Oceanography

What is the main reason we have tides on Earth?

ANSWER: the Moon's gravity

TOSS-UP #22  Multiple Choice - Mythology

The most famous picture of the Loch Ness monster taken by Robert Kenneth Wilson is popularly known as what because he refused to publish his name along with the photograph in the London Daily Mail?
      W. Surgeon's Photograph
      X. Fisher's Photograph
      Y. Trawler's Photograph
      Z. Tourist's Photograph

BONUS #22  Short Answer - Mythology

The mysterious lake said to hold the Loch Ness monster, Loch Ness is located in what country?

ANSWER: Scotland

TOSS-UP #23  Multiple Choice - Physical Oceanography

If a wave has an amplitude of 3 feet and a wavelength of 20 feet, how deep does the water have to be for this wave to be considered a deep water wave?
      W. greater than 1.5 feet
      X. greater than 10 feet
      Y. greater than 100 feet
      Z. greater than 1000 feet

BONUS #23  Short Answer - Physical Oceanography

How many oceans are there on the Earth today as designated by the International Hydrographic Organization?


TOSS-UP #24  Multiple Choice - Pop Culture

What ancient sea creature was popularized in the movie Jurassic World?
      W. Liopleurodon
      X. Megladon
      Y. Mosasaurus
      Z. Tylosaurus

BONUS #24  Short Answer - Pop Culture

Mosasaurus lived during what peiod of the Mesozoic era?

ANSWER: Cretaceous

TOSS-UP #25  Multiple Choice - Pop Culture

What species haunts a New England island in the movie Jaws?
      W. Bull
      X. Megladon
      Y. Mega White
      Z. Great White

BONUS #25  Short Answer - Pop Culture

Who wrote Jaws?

ANSWER: Peter Benchley

TOSS-UP #26  Multiple Choice - Biology

Name the fin-like lobes that jut out from both sides of the Manta Ray's mouth to funnel in food?
      W. Cephalic Lobes
      X. Funneling Lobes
      Y. Capital Lobes
      Z. Cartilaginous Lobes

BONUS #26  Short Answer - Biology

What is the name of the opening on rays near there eyes that brings water to there gills?

ANSWER: Spiracles

TOSS-UP #27  Multiple Choice - Biology

What oceanic zone does the angle shark inhabit?
      W. Pelagic
      X. Abyssal
      Y. Hadal
      Z. Benthic

BONUS #27  Short Answer - Biology

What oceanic zone does the whale shark inhabit?

ANSWER: Pelagic Zone

TOSS-UP #28  Multiple Choice - Biology

What are the two subclasses of the class of cartilaginous fish, Chondrichthyes?
      W. Rhincodontidae and Lamniformes
      X. Elasmobranchii and Lamniformes
      Y. Elasmobranchii and Holocephali
      Z. Orectolobiformes and Holocephali

BONUS #28  Short Answer - Biology

What animals make up the subclass of Holocephali?

ANSWER: Pelagic Zone

TOSS-UP #29  Multiple Choice - Biology

What is the scientific name of the Whale Shark?
      W. Rhincodon typus
      X. Rhincodon flurodon
      Y. Rhincodon simolaephodon
      Z. Rhincodon cephalodon

BONUS #29  Short Answer - Biology

What is the scientific name of the Great White Shark?

ANSWER: Carcharodon carcharias

TOSS-UP #30  Multiple Choice - Biology

What is the smallest known shark in the world?
      W. Pygmy Littleshark
      X. Dwarf Dogshark
      Y. Dwarf Lantershark
      Z. Pygmy Cephaloshark

BONUS #30  Short Answer - Biology

What is the scientific name of the Dwarf Lanternshark?

ANSWER: Etmopterus perryi

TOSS-UP #31  Multiple Choice - Biology

What are the two parvorders of whales?
      W. Odontoceti and Fisticeti
      X. Rhincodon and Fisticeti
      Y. Rhincodon and Odontoceti
      Z. Odontoceti and Mysticeti

BONUS #31  Short Answer - Biology

Of the following four items, which are different between Odontoceti and Mysticeti?
    1. Method of eating
    2. Size
    3. Number of blowholes
    4. Caudal fin shape

ANSWER: 1, 2 and 3